Don’t Solve Problems, Eliminate Them

Humans are natural problem solvers. The fact that we’ve survived as long as a
species as we have is evidence of that.

Humans are also natural problem seekers. Let that one sink in. You know it’s
true. And I’m not talking about those people. I’m talking about you and me
too. It’s tough and takes intentionality to avoid. We just spend so much time
solving problems, that we naturally seek problems to solve, even if we don’t
have those problems right now.

Photo of a Violin by Providence Doucet

As an example, one of my sisters reached out to me asking if I could help her
build an app that basically combined the capabilities of Zoom, Tito, and Google
Calendar to enable out-of-work musicians (due to the pandemic) to teach their
skills remotely. She was seeking problems to solve before having the problems

Instead of helping her build solutions to problems she didn’t have yet, I
encouraged her to simply use Zoom, Tito, and Google Calendar to get this idea
off the ground, and then when those tools fell short, that would be a problem
which she would be more equipped to solve because she would have actual
experience with the problem and therefore have more context with which to solve
the problem.

Ultimately she didn’t pursue the idea. It’s good that she didn’t decide to solve
the problems she didn’t have before she decided to move on from the idea. I wish
I could say I’ve never made that mistake myself. How many times have I written a
test for code I ended up deleting before it even got committed 🤦‍♂️

Avoiding problems is better than solving them. Don’t try to solve problems
you don’t have yet. I’m not saying don’t plan ahead. You can avoid solving
problems you don’t have without painting yourself in a corner.

Even though avoiding a problem is best, sometimes you can’t avoid a problem.
What then?

Humans should be problem eliminators. This is unnatural and takes extra
effort. When faced with a problem, humans naturally start thinking of solutions
to the problem. And when we solve it, we feel good about ourselves, but we’ve
unwittingly made ourselves captive to the maintenance of our solution.

However, if someone can take a step back and eliminate the problem instead of
solving it, they’ll find themselves in an excellent position and freed up to
focus on tasks other than maintaining solutions. And often problems are
eliminated for folks who use what they produce as well.

At first glance, problem solving and problem eliminating seem like the same
thing. So to be clear, here’s the difference: When you solve a problem, you
have a solution you have to maintain. When you eliminate a problem you don’t
even have to think about it because the problem no longer exists.

Let’s consider a few examples.

Tesla Model S driving fast with mountains in the background

Tesla is a great example of this. By going all electric, they’ve eliminated
countless parts and processes that have been industry norm over hundreds of
years. This has freed them to focus on other problems that they introduced with
their alternative approach.

And as an EV owner, switching from gas to electric allows me to eliminate
problems like “where do I get an oil change” or worries that the transmission
will blow and only very rarely (if ever) that I’ll need new brake pads, etc etc
etc. (EVs require very little maintenance because there are just so fewer parts
that can wear out and break).

Screenshot of a tesla livestream showing the model y giga casting machine with the words "40% rear underbody cost savings" and "-79 parts per car"

A more recent innovation of Tesla is the use of the “Gigapress” which allows
them to make a single-piece casting of the entire back and front of the vehicle.
This eliminates the need for dozens of robots to bolt and weld dozens of parts

Tesla is a fantastic example of problem elimination. Very interesting case study
for anyone interested in manufacturing at a huge scale. Problem elimination is
key to their success.

Most of you reading probably don’t manufacture at scale. You’re building apps.
So what are some code-related examples of problem elimination?

React logo

Years ago, to create a React component, we created a class that
extends React.Component. We would add methods for different lifecycle events
we wanted to handle. This worked well for years, but a big sticking point was
code reuse. A given “concern” (or feature) could have code spread across any or
all of constructor, componentDidMount, componentDidUpdate,
componentWillUnmount, and render. Creating reusable abstractions that
required code in each of those lifecycles was a challenge.

The React team and community came up with ideas like “Higher Order Components”
and “Render Props” to solve these problems. For a long time this seemed like a
pretty good solution. There were rough edges (nesting and false hierarchy issues
with render props or terrible typing support and prop indirection/clashes for
HOCs), but we’d pretty much gotten used to these problems as a community and the
solution worked pretty well.

Then the React team changed the game entirely and introduced hooks. With hooks,
code reuse is trivial and obvious. You share code with React hooks the same way
you share regular JavaScript code: make a function. They completely eliminated
the problem and we no longer feel the pain that led us to HOCs or render props
except for very specific scenarios.

As another quick example: early in the React world, the only officially
supported way to get state and functions from one place to another in React is
to pass props. This led to “prop drilling” where you have to pipe props through
components all over your app. This was a huge pain. There was a note in the docs
about a “context” API that existed, but its use was strongly discouraged
directly in the docs.

Then redux came on the scene and solved prop drilling (among other things) and
people jumped on it quick. Redux actually used the context API, but because it
was hidden behind a library people weren’t worried about the warning in the docs
(most didn’t even know they were indirectly using context).

However, when context became official, and when hooks made it much easier to
use, many people found that the primary problem for which they were using redux
(getting state around their app) had been eliminated with a built-in approach,
and dropped redux in favor of the new approach.

(To be clear, there are other reasons people use redux, but in days before
official context, this was the primary pain that drove people to redux).

Remix logo

Remix is another great example of a problem eliminator. They’ve taken a
completely different approach to building applications with React and eliminated
a bunch of problems in the process.

People coming from other metaframeworks very quickly fall in love with the
built-in support for nested routing. Among other things, this eliminates the
problem of shared layout components. If you know the frustration, you understand
what I mean. If you don’t… lucky you.

Because Remix exposes a direct API to the response cache headers, you can have
all the primary benefits of static site generators with no need to do
“intelligent” incremental rebuilds (which is an enormously complex solution to a
real problem faced by the SSG approach).

Because of the way Remix allows you to load your data in a loader function in
the same file as your component, the problem of data over fetching is eliminated
(you just filter out what you don’t need in the loader so you only send what’s
needed over the wire) and a big problem that drives people to graphql clients is
eliminated (to be clear, Remix works with graphql, you just don’t have to use a
complex client-side graphql client with Remix to avoid over fetching). Remix
also only fetches the data for the changed layouts on a page transition
(something you can only really do with nested routing), further eliminating the
over fetching problem.

Because Remix supports <form> directly, you don’t have to worry about the
song-and-dance of form state management and submission. And to get the same
benefits with client-side routing, it exposes a <Form> component that emulates
the same experience without a full-page refresh.

Because Remix automatically re-calls your loaders on mutations, you don’t need
to worry about cache invalidation.

Because Remix allows you to specify the link tags included on a route-by-route
basis, you don’t need to worry about changes of CSS on one page impacting those
on another page. That problem has been completely eliminated and now maybe
you’ll think twice before reaching to a CSS-in-JS library to solve that problem.
Because it just doesn’t exist when using Remix.

Because Remix is a progressive-enhancement focused framework, you don’t need to
worry about whether your app will work on an unreliable network where the JS
fails to load for some reason.

Because Remix is built on top of web-based APIs primarily, they’ve eliminated
over half of the documentation they would otherwise need to write because they
can just point you to MDN. And they’ve
eliminated the problem of transferrable skills for us as users because the
better we get at Remix, the better we get at building websites without it too.

By now you’ve probably had this thought at least once: “But Kent… They may
have eliminated some problems, but they introduced some new ones!” Yes, this is
what we call trade-offs and they’re impossible to avoid. Even inaction (the most
efficient problem elimination technique) has trade-offs.

EVs may not have the maintenance headaches of traditional ICE vehicles, but they
also don’t charge as quickly as you can gas up a traditional car and you can’t
just carry a gas can around with you just in case.

React hooks drastically simplified code reuse, but now you’ve got to learn about
value identity and memoization is when building those abstractions (though,
by putting things inside the useEffect,
we can eliminate that problem).

The ultimate goal is that the new problems you have to face are easier/cheaper
to solve than the ones you had before.

Eliminate big problems in exchange for smaller problems.

There are countless examples of problem elimination throughout history and in
every industry that have taken our world to new heights.

I want to encourage us all to embrace the problem solving of humanity. I also
want us to be mindful, take a step back, and ask ourselves whether we’re solving
the right problems. Are we just solving problems we created from the solution to
other problems? Is it possible to eliminate those first problems so we don’t
have to solve the problems our solution created?

Start by not seeking problems. If you really do have a problem, first try to
eliminate it if you can, and only solve it if you’re sure you can’t.

The biggest challenge is making sure that our elimination of problems don’t
create bigger problems. But when you can do that, you can drastically improve
things for yourself and everyone who enjoys what you’ve created as well. Take
chances, make mistakes, and eliminate problems!

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